Information on the Eurasian - European Metapopulation

The European Metapopulation (Eurasian - European) consists of 85,536 haplotypes (at least minimal) which were published in 154 population studies and were additionally submitted via personal communication (69 submissions) .

Most common haplotypes

Count DYS19 DYS389I DYS389II DYS390 DYS391 DYS392 DYS393 DYS385
3044 14 13 29 24 11 13 13 11,14
1439 14 13 29 23 11 13 13 11,14
1416 14 13 29 24 10 13 13 11,14
832 14 12 28 22 10 11 13 13,14
811 14 14 30 24 11 13 13 11,14
805 14 13 29 24 11 13 13 11,15
768 16 13 29 25 10 11 13 11,14
700 17 13 30 25 10 11 13 10,14
629 14 13 30 24 11 13 13 11,14
627 16 13 30 25 10 11 13 11,14
Count DYS391 DYS389I DYS439 DYS389II DYS438 DYS437 DYS19 DYS392 DYS393 DYS390 DYS385
1069 11 13 12 29 12 15 14 13 13 24 11,14
569 11 13 12 29 12 15 14 13 13 23 11,14
533 10 13 12 29 12 15 14 13 13 24 11,14
446 10 12 11 28 10 16 14 11 13 22 13,14
413 11 13 11 29 12 15 14 13 13 24 11,14
393 10 13 11 29 11 14 16 11 13 25 11,14
379 10 13 10 30 11 14 17 11 13 25 10,14
300 11 13 13 29 12 15 14 13 13 24 11,14
299 11 13 12 29 12 15 14 13 13 24 11,15
295 10 13 12 30 10 14 13 11 13 24 16,18
Count DYS456 DYS389I DYS390 DYS389II DYS458 DYS19 DYS385 DYS393 DYS391 DYS439 DYS635 DYS392 YGATAH4 DYS437 DYS438 DYS448
110 15 13 24 29 17 14 11,14 13 11 12 23 13 12 15 12 19
107 17 13 25 29 16 16 11,14 13 10 11 23 11 12 14 11 20
102 16 13 24 29 17 14 11,14 13 11 12 23 13 12 15 12 19
75 16 13 25 30 16 17 10,14 13 10 10 23 11 12 14 11 20
64 16 13 24 29 18 14 11,14 13 11 12 23 13 12 15 12 19
63 15 13 24 29 18 14 11,14 13 11 12 23 13 12 15 12 19
58 16 13 24 29 16 14 11,14 13 11 12 23 13 12 15 12 19
57 16 13 25 30 17 17 10,14 13 10 10 23 11 12 14 11 20
55 15 13 24 29 17 14 11,14 13 11 11 23 13 12 15 12 19
55 17 13 25 29 17 14 11,13 13 11 12 23 14 12 15 12 18
Count DYS576 DYS389I DYS448 DYS389II DYS19 DYS391 DYS481 DYS549 DYS533 DYS438 DYS437 DYS570 DYS635 DYS390 DYS439 DYS392 DYS643 DYS393 DYS458 DYS385 DYS456 YGATAH4
10 19 14 19 30 13 10 27 13 12 9 15 18 22 23 12 13 11 13 16 14,15 14 11
9 18 13 20 29 16 10 25 12 12 11 14 19 23 25 11 11 10 13 16 11,14 17 12
8 17 13 19 29 14 11 22 14 12 12 14 17 24 24 12 13 10 14 17 12,16 15 12
7 16 12 20 28 14 10 26 12 11 10 16 19 22 22 11 11 12 13 15 13,14 15 10
7 19 14 19 30 15 10 23 13 12 9 14 16 20 22 11 11 9 12 18 15,17 15 12
6 17 13 19 29 13 11 22 13 13 13 14 16 24 25 12 13 10 13 16 11,15 16 12
6 18 13 18 29 14 11 25 12 13 12 15 17 23 25 12 14 10 13 17 11,13 17 12
6 18 14 20 31 14 11 23 13 13 13 15 16 23 23 11 13 10 13 18 10,15 16 12
5 17 12 20 28 16 10 26 12 11 10 16 18 22 22 11 11 12 13 16 13,14 14 12
5 17 13 19 29 14 11 22 13 12 12 15 17 23 23 12 13 10 13 17 11,14 17 11
Count DYS576 DYS389I DYS635 DYS389II DYS627 DYS460 DYS458 DYS19 YGATAH4 DYS448 DYS391 DYS456 DYS390 DYS438 DYS392 DYS518 DYS570 DYS437 DYS385 DYS449 DYS393 DYS439 DYS481 DYF387S1 DYS533
3 16 13 21 30 20 10 18 15 11 19 10 15 23 9 13 36 18 14 14,16 33 13 11 22 38,38 12
3 16 13 23 29 21 11 17 14 12 19 11 15 23 12 13 36 17 15 12,14 31 12 12 22 35,36 12
3 18 13 23 29 16 11 16 16 12 20 10 17 25 11 11 43 19 14 11,14 32 13 11 25 38,38 12
3 18 13 23 30 18 11 16 17 12 20 10 16 25 11 11 41 19 14 14,14 31 13 10 25 36,38 12
2 15 12 21 28 21 10 16 15 11 23 10 17 21 10 11 37 17 15 14,15 31 14 11 21 37,38 10
2 16 12 21 28 19 10 15 14 11 20 10 14 23 10 11 37 21 16 14,14 28 13 11 25 37,39 11
2 16 12 21 28 20 11 16 14 12 19 10 13 24 9 11 39 16 16 14,18 29 12 12 23 37,38 12
2 16 12 21 28 20 11 17 15 11 20 10 12 23 9 11 38 18 16 15,17 28 12 11 23 38,39 10
2 16 12 23 28 18 11 16 15 11 21 9 15 22 10 11 37 19 16 15,15 29 14 11 22 38,39 9
2 16 12 24 29 21 10 17 16 11 20 11 15 23 10 11 38 18 16 12,14 32 13 11 24 38,39 13
Count DYS19 DYS389I DYS389II DYS390 DYS391 DYS392 DYS393 DYS385 DYS439 DYS438 DYS437 DYS456 DYS458 DYS635 YGATAH4 DYS448 DYS576 DYS481 DYS549 DYS533 DYS570 DYS643 DYS627 DYS460 DYS518 DYS449 DYF387S1
2 13 13 29 25 11 13 13 11,14 13 12 15 18 16 23 12 19 19 22 13 12 17 10 24 11 39 29 35,36
2 13 13 30 24 10 11 13 16,18 12 10 14 15 15 23 12 20 16 22 12 12 20 14 21 9 41 32 35,37
2 13 14 30 23 10 13 13 14,15 12 9 15 14 16 22 11 19 19 27 13 12 18 11 20 11 36 32 38,39
2 14 12 28 25 10 13 13 11,14 12 12 15 16 18 23 11 19 18 22 14 12 17 10 22 10 38 31 35,37
2 14 13 29 23 10 13 13 11,14 11 12 15 16 17 23 12 19 17 22 12 12 18 10 22 10 40 29 35,36
2 14 13 29 23 11 13 13 11,14 13 12 15 15 17 24 12 19 18 22 13 12 17 11 22 11 36 30 35,36
2 14 13 29 24 10 13 13 11,14 11 11 15 17 17 23 12 19 17 21 13 13 17 10 21 11 38 32 35,37
2 14 13 29 24 10 13 13 11,14 12 12 15 16 17 23 12 19 19 22 13 12 17 10 25 11 39 29 35,37
2 14 13 29 24 10 13 13 12,15 12 12 15 16 18 23 11 19 17 22 14 13 18 10 22 10 38 29 35,36
2 14 13 29 24 11 13 12 12,14 11 12 15 15 17 24 12 19 18 19 13 12 17 10 22 11 39 33 35,36

Population studies

  • Corach D., Risso F., Marino M., Penacino G. and Sala A. (2001), 'Routine Y-STR typing in forensic casework.', Forensic Sci Int 118(2-3):131-5 [PubMed]
  • Kayser M., Caglià A., Corach D., Fretwell N., Gehrig C., Graziosi G., Heidorn F., Herrmann S., Herzog B., Hidding M., Honda K., Jobling M., Krawczak M., Leim K., Meuser S., Meyer E., Oesterreich W., Pandya A., Parson W., Penacino G., Perez-Lezaun A., Piccinini A., Prinz M., Schmitt C. and Roewer L. (1997), 'Evaluation of Y-chromosomal STRs: a multicenter study.', Int J Legal Med 110(3):125-33, 141-9 [PubMed]
  • Kayser M., Brauer S., Schädlich H., Prinz M., Batzer MA., Zimmerman PA., Boatin BA. and Stoneking M. (2003), 'Y chromosome STR haplotypes and the genetic structure of U.S. populations of African, European, and Hispanic ancestry.', Genome Res 13(4):624-34 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Leat N., Benjeddou M. and Davison S. (2004), 'Nine-locus Y-chromosome STR profiling of Caucasian and Xhosa populations from Cape Town, South Africa.', Forensic Sci Int 144(1):73-5 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Rocabado O., Penacino G., Sala A., Revollo S., Marino MEI., Polisecki E., Aliaga J. and Corach D. (2003), 'Análisis Genético Poblacional de 9 Y-STR en un Grupo Étnico de Bolivia', Bioquímica ciencia y sociedad. XI:49-52 [Link]
  • Fondevila M., Jaime JC., Salas A., Lareu MV. and Carracedo A. (2003), 'Y-chromosome STR haplotypes in Córdoba (Argentina).', Forensic Sci Int 137(2-3):217-20 [PubMed]
  • Ge J., Budowle B., Planz JV., Eisenberg AJ., Ballantyne J. and Chakraborty R. (2010), 'US forensic Y-chromosome short tandem repeats database.', Leg Med (Tokyo) 12(6):289-95 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Caputo M., Sala A. and Corach D. (2019), 'Demand for larger Y-STR reference databases in ethnic melting-pot countries: Argentina as a test case.', Int J Legal Med 133(5):1309-1320 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Frank WE., Ellinger ER. and Krishack PA. (2006), 'Y chromosome STR haplotypes and allele frequencies in Illinois Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic males.', J Forensic Sci 51(5):1207-15 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Steffen CR., Huszar TI., Borsuk LA., Vallone PM. and Gettings KB. (2022), 'A multi-dimensional evaluation of the ‘NIST 1032’ sample set across four forensic Y-STR multiplexes', For Sci Int Genet Epub ahead of print:In press [DOI]
  • Souza D., Carvalho D., Gomes I., Silva D., Gil EH., Amorim A. and Gusmão L. (2005), 'Population and mutation analysis of 17 Y-STR loci from Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).', Int J Legal Med 119(2):70-6 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Góis CC., Martins JA., Pereira GA., Freschi A., Paneto GG., Alvarenga VL., Cicarelli RM., Hirata MH. and Oliveira RN. (2008), 'Genetic population data of 12 STR loci of the PowerPlex Y system in the state of São Paulo population (Southeast of Brazil).', Forensic Sci Int 174(1):81-6 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Gusmão L., Sánchez-Diz P., Calafell F., Martín P., Alonso CA., Alvarez-Fernández F., Alves C., Borjas-Fajardo L., Bozzo WR., Bravo ML., Builes JJ., Capilla J., Carvalho M., Castillo C., Catanesi CI., Corach D., Lonardo D., Espinheira R., De F., Farfán MJ., Figueiredo HP., Gomes I., Lojo MM., Marino M., Pinheiro MF., Pontes ML., Prieto V., Ramos-Luis E., Riancho JA., Góes S., Santapa OA., Sumita DR., Vallejo G., Rioja V., Vide MC., Da V., Whittle MR., Zabala W., Zarrabeitia MT., Alonso A., Carracedo A. and Amorim A. (2005), 'Mutation rates at Y chromosome specific microsatellites.', Hum Mutat 26(6):520-8 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Budowle B., Ge J., Aranda XG., Planz JV., Eisenberg AJ. and Chakraborty R. (2009), 'Texas population substructure and its impact on estimating the rarity of Y STR haplotypes from DNA evidence*.', J Forensic Sci 54(5):1016-21 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Xu H., Wang CC., Shrestha R., Wang LX., Zhang M., He Y., Kidd JR., Kidd KK., Jin L. and Li H. (2015), 'Inferring population structure and demographic history using Y‐STR data from worldwide populations', Mol Genet Genomics 290(1):141-50 [DOI]
  • Pignone ML., Manzella AM., Galusha M., Le J. and Moreno LI. (2022), 'Y-STR Sample Haplotypes From Five United States of America Population Groups', Forensic Science International: Reports 100274:In press [DOI]
  • Schwengber SP., Kommers T., Matte CH., Raimann PE., Carvalho BA., Leite FP., Medeiros MA., Souza LF., Castro CS., Chassot FG. and Bonatto SL. (2009), 'Population data of 17 Y-STR loci from Rio Grande do Sul state (South Brazil).', Forensic Sci Int Genet 4(1):e31-3 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Henry J., Dao H., Scandrett L. and Taylor D. (2019), 'Population genetic analysis of Yfiler® Plus haplotype data for three South Australian populations', For Sci Int Genet 41:e23-e25 [DOI]
  • Purps J., Siegert S., Willuweit S., Nagy M., Alves C., Salazar R., Angustia SM., Santos LH., Anslinger K., Bayer B., Ayub Q., Wei W., Xue Y., Tyler-Smith C., Bafalluy MB., Martínez-Jarreta B., Egyed B., Balitzki B., Tschumi S., Ballard D., Court DS., Barrantes X., Bäßler G., Wiest T., Berger B., Niederstätter H., Parson W., Davis C., Budowle B., Burri H., Borer U., Koller C., Carvalho EF., Domingues PM., Chamoun WT., Coble MD., Hill CR., Corach D., Caputo M., D'Amato ME., Davison S., Decorte R., Larmuseau MH., Ottoni C., Rickards O., Lu D., Jiang C., Dobosz T., Jonkisz A., Frank WE., Furac I., Gehrig C., Castella V., Grskovic B., Haas C., Wobst J., Hadzic G., Drobnic K., Honda K., Hou Y., Zhou D., Li Y., Hu S., Chen S., Immel UD., Lessig R., Jakovski Z., Ilievska T., Klann AE., García CC., Knijff D., Kraaijenbrink T., Kondili A., Miniati P., Vouropoulou M., Kovacevic L., Marjanovic D., Lindner I., Mansour I., Al-Azem M., Andari AE., Marino M., Furfuro S., Locarno L., Martín P., Luque GM., Alonso A., Miranda LS., Moreira H., Mizuno N., Iwashima Y., Neto RS., Nogueira TL., Silva R., Nastainczyk-Wulf M., Edelmann J., Kohl M., Nie S., Wang X., Cheng B., Núñez C., Pancorbo MM., Olofsson JK., Morling N., Onofri V., Tagliabracci A., Pamjav H., Volgyi A., Barany G., Pawlowski R., Maciejewska A., Pelotti S., Pepinski W., Abreu-Glowacka M., Phillips C., Cárdenas J., Rey-Gonzalez D., Salas A., Brisighelli F., Capelli C., Toscanini U., Piccinini A., Piglionica M., Baldassarra SL., Ploski R., Konarzewska M., Jastrzebska E., Robino C., Sajantila A., Palo JU., Guevara E., Salvador J., Ungria MC., Rodriguez JJ., Schmidt U., Schlauderer N., Saukko P., Schneider PM., Sirker M., Shin KJ., Oh YN., Skitsa I., Ampati A., Smith TG., Calvit LS., Stenzl V., Capal T., Tillmar A., Nilsson H., Turrina S., Leo D., Verzeletti A., Cortellini V., Wetton JH., Gwynne GM., Jobling MA., Whittle MR., Sumita DR., Wolańska-Nowak P., Yong RY., Krawczak M., Nothnagel M. and Roewer L. (2014), 'A global analysis of Y-chromosomal haplotype diversity for 23 STR loci.', Forensic Sci Int Genet 12:12-23 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Toscanini U., Brisighelli F., Moreno F., Pantoja-Astudillo JA., Morales EA., Bustos P., Pardo-Seco J. and Salas A. (2016), 'Analysis of Y-chromosome STRs in Chile confirms an extensive introgression of European male lineages in urban populations.', Forensic Sci Int Genet 21:76-80 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Reid KM. and Heathfield LJ. (2020), 'Allele frequency data for 23 Y-chromosome short tandem repeats (STRs) for the South African population', For Sci Int Genet 46:102270 [DOI]
  • Kayser M., Krawczak M., Excoffier L., Dieltjes P., Corach D., Pascali V., Gehrig C., Bernini LF., Jespersen J., Bakker E., Roewer L. and Knijff D. (2001), 'An extensive analysis of Y-chromosomal microsatellite haplotypes in globally dispersed human populations.', Am J Hum Genet 68(4):990-1018 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Gamero JJ., Romero JL., González JL., Carvalho M., Anjos MJ., Real FC. and Vide MC. (2002), 'Y-chromosome STR haplotypes in a southwest Spain population sample.', Forensic Sci Int 125(1):86-9 [PubMed]
  • Martinez-Jarreta B., Nievas P., Abecia E., Hinojal R. and Budowle B. (2003), 'Haplotype distribution of nine Y-chromosome STR-loci in two northern Spanish populations (Asturias and Aragon).', J Forensic Sci 48(1):204-5 [PubMed]
  • Carvalho M., Anjos MJ., Andrade L., Lopes V., Santos MV., Gamero JJ., Real C. and Vide MC. (2003), 'Y-chromosome STR haplotypes in two population samples: Azores Islands and Central Portugal.', Forensic Sci Int 134(1):29-35 [PubMed]
  • Gené M., Borrego N., Xifró A., Piqué E., Moreno P. and Huguet E. (1999), 'Haplotype frequencies of eight Y-chromosome STR loci in Barcelona (North-East Spain).', Int J Legal Med 112(6):403-5 [PubMed]
  • Mertens G., Jehaes E., Leijnen G., Rand S., Jacobs W. and Marck V. (2007), 'Twelve-locus Y-STR haplotypes in the Flemish population.', J Forensic Sci 52(3):755-7 [PubMed]
  • Dupuy BM., Andreassen R., Flønes AG., Tomassen K., Egeland T., Brion M., Carracedo A. and Olaisen B. (2001), 'Y-chromosome variation in a Norwegian population sample.', Forensic Sci Int 117(3):163-73 [PubMed]
  • Gehrig C., Hochmeister M. and Budowle B. (2000), 'Swiss allele frequencies and haplotypes of 7 Y-specific STRs.', J Forensic Sci 45(2):436-9 [PubMed]
  • Zieger M. and Utz S. (2020), 'The Y-chromosomal haplotype and haplogroup distribution of modern Switzerland still reflects the alpine divide as a geographical barrier for human migration.', For Sci Int Genet 48:102345 [DOI]
  • Karlsson AO., Wallerström T., Götherström A. and Holmlund G. (2006), 'Y-chromosome diversity in Sweden - a long-time perspective.', Eur J Hum Genet 14(8):963-70 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Ferri G., Ceccardi S., Lugaresi F., Bini C., Ingravallo F., Cicognani A., Falconi M. and Pelotti S. (2008), 'Male haplotypes and haplogroups differences between urban (Rimini) and rural area (Valmarecchia) in Romagna region (North Italy).', Forensic Sci Int 175(2-3):250-5 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Junge A. and Madea B. (1999), 'Population studies of the Y-chromosome specific polymorphisms DYS19, DYS389 I + II, DYS390 and DYS393 in a western German population (Bonn area).', Forensic Sci Int 101(3):195-201 [PubMed]
  • Cerri N., Verzeletti A., Bandera B. and Ferrari D. (2005), 'Population data for 12 Y-chromosome STRs in a sample from Brescia (northern Italy).', Forensic Sci Int 152(1):83-7 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Roewer L., Krawczak M., Willuweit S., Nagy M., Alves C., Amorim A., Anslinger K., Augustin C., Betz A., Bosch E., Cagliá A., Carracedo A., Corach D., Dekairelle AF., Dobosz T., Dupuy BM., Füredi S., Gehrig C., Gusmaõ L., Henke J., Henke L., Hidding M., Hohoff C., Hoste B., Jobling MA., Kärgel HJ., Knijff D., Lessig R., Liebeherr E., Lorente M., Martínez-Jarreta B., Nievas P., Nowak M., Parson W., Pascali VL., Penacino G., Ploski R., Rolf B., Sala A., Schmidt U., Schmitt C., Schneider PM., Szibor R., Teifel-Greding J. and Kayser M. (2001), 'Online reference database of European Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) haplotypes.', Forensic Sci Int 118(2-3):106-13 [PubMed]
  • Claerhout S., Roelens J., Der V., Verstraete P., Larmuseau MHD. and Decorte R. (2020), 'Ysurnames? The patrilineal Y-chromosome and surname correlation for DNA kinship research', For Sci Int Genet 44:102204 [DOI]
  • Zarrabeitia MT., Riancho JA., Sánchez-Diz P. and Sánchez-Velasco P. (2001), '7-Locus Y chromosome haplotype profiling in a northern Spain population.', Forensic Sci Int 123(1):78-80 [PubMed]
  • Nuñez C., Baeta M., Fernández M., Zarrabeitia M., Martinez-Jarreta B. and Pancorbo MM. (2015), 'Highly discriminatory capacity of the PowerPlex(®) Y23 System for the study of isolated populations', For Sci Int Genetics 17:104-107 [DOI]
  • Dupuy BM., Stenersen M., Lu TT. and Olaisen B. (2006), 'Geographical heterogeneity of Y-chromosomal lineages in Norway.', Forensic Sci Int 164(1):10-9 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Bento AM., Carvalho M., Lopes V., Serra A., Costa HA., Andrade L., Balsa F., Oliveira C., Batista L., Gamero J., Anjos MJ., Gusmão L. and Corte-Real F. (2009), 'Distribution of Y-chromosomal haplotypes in the Central Portuguese population using 17-STRs', Forensic Sci Int Genet 4(1):e35-6 [DOI]
  • Hidding M. and Schmitt C. (2000), 'Haplotype frequencies and population data of nine Y-chromosomal STR polymorphisms in a German and a Chinese population.', Forensic Sci Int 113(1-3):47-53 [PubMed]
  • Henke J., Henke L., Chatthopadhyay P., Kayser M., Dülmer M., Cleef S., Pöche H. and Felske-Zech H. (2001), 'Application of Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes to forensic genetics.', Croat Med J 42(3):292-7 [PubMed]
  • Bosch E., Rosser ZH., Nørby S., Lynnerup N. and Jobling MA. (2003), 'Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in Inuit and Danish population samples.', Forensic Sci Int 132(3):228-32 [PubMed]
  • Olofsson JK., Mogensen HS., Buchard A., Børsting C. and Morling N. (2015), 'Forensic and population genetic analyses of Danes, Greenlanders and Somalis typed with the Yfiler® Plus PCR amplification kit.', Forensic Sci Int Genet 16:232-236 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Rodig H., Grum M. and Grimmecke HD. (2007), 'Population study and evaluation of 20 Y-chromosome STR loci in Germans.', Int J Legal Med 121(1):24-7 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Ferri G., Alù M., Corradini B., Radheshi E. and Beduschi G. (2009), 'Slow and fast evolving markers typing in Modena males (North Italy).', Forensic Sci Int Genet 3(2):e31-3 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Schmidt U., Meier N. and Lutz S. (2003), 'Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in a population sample from southwest Germany (Freiburg area).', Int J Legal Med 117(4):211-7 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Holmlund G., Nilsson H., Karlsson A. and Lindblom B. (2006), 'Y-chromosome STR haplotypes in Sweden.', Forensic Sci Int 160(1):66-79 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Kayser M., Lao O., Anslinger K., Augustin C., Bargel G., Edelmann J., Elias S., Heinrich M., Henke J., Henke L., Hohoff C., Illing A., Jonkisz A., Kuzniar P., Lebioda A., Lessig R., Lewicki S., Maciejewska A., Monies DM., Pawłowski R., Poetsch M., Schmid D., Schmidt U., Schneider PM., Stradmann-Bellinghausen B., Szibor R., Wegener R., Wozniak M., Zoledziewska M., Roewer L., Dobosz T. and Ploski R. (2005), 'Significant genetic differentiation between Poland and Germany follows present-day political borders, as revealed by Y-chromosome analysis.', Hum Genet 117(5):428-43 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Immel UD., Kleiber M. and Klintschar M. (2005), 'Y chromosome polymorphisms and haplotypes in South Saxony-Anhalt (Germany).', Forensic Sci Int 155(2-3):211-5 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Andreassen R., Pereira L., Dupuy BM. and Mevaag B. (2010), 'Icelandic population data for the STR loci in the AMPFlSTR SGM Plus system and the PowerPlex Y-system.', Forensic Sci Int Genet 4(4):e101-3 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Aliferi A., Thomson J., McDonald A., Molin V., Ferguson S., Vanhinsbergh D., Syndercombe D. and Ballard D. (2018), 'UK and Irish Y-STR population data—A catalogue of variant alleles', For Sci Int Genetics 34:e1-6 [Link] [DOI]
  • Capelli C., Arredi B., Baldassari L., Boschi I., Brisighelli F., Caglià A., Dobosz M., Scarnicci F., Vetrugno G. and Pascali VL. (2006), 'A 9-loci Y chromosome haplotype in three Italian populations', Forensic Sci Int 159(1):64-70 [DOI]
  • Lessig R. and Edelmann J. (1998), 'Y chromosome polymorphisms and haplotypes in west Saxony (Germany).', Int J Legal Med 111(4):215-8 [PubMed]
  • Maesschalck D., Vanhoutte E., Knaepen K., Vanderheyden N., Cassiman JJ. and Decorte R. (2005), 'Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in a Belgian population sample and identification of a micro-variant with a flanking site mutation at DYS19.', Forensic Sci Int 152(1):89-94 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Presciuttini S., Caglià A., Alù M., Asmundo A., Buscemi L., Caenazzo L., Carnevali E., Carra E., Battisti D., Stefano D., Domenici R., Piccinini A., Resta N., Ricci U. and Pascali VL. (2001), 'Y-chromosome haplotypes in Italy: the GEFI collaborative database.', Forensic Sci Int 122(2-3):184-8 [PubMed]
  • Grignani P., Peloso G., Fattorini P. and Previderè C. (2000), 'Highly informative Y-chromosomal haplotypes by the addition of three new STRs DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439.', Int J Legal Med 114(1-2):125-9 [PubMed]
  • Fernandes AT., Brehm A., Gusmão L. and Amorim A. (2001), 'Y-chromosome STR haplotypes in the Madeira archipelago population.', Forensic Sci Int 122(2-3):178-80 [PubMed]
  • Martín P., García-Hirschfeld J., García O., Gusmão L., García P., Albarrán C., Sancho M. and Alonso A. (2004), 'A Spanish population study of 17 Y-chromosome STR loci.', Forensic Sci Int 139(2-3):231-5 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Schneider PM., Meuser S., Waiyawuth W., Seo Y. and Rittner C. (1998), 'Tandem repeat structure of the duplicated Y-chromosomal STR locus DYS385 and frequency studies in the German and three Asian populations.', Forensic Sci Int 97(1):61-70 [PubMed]
  • Onofri V., Alessandrini F., Turchi C., Fraternale B., Buscemi L., Pesaresi M. and Tagliabracci A. (2007), 'Y-chromosome genetic structure in sub-Apennine populations of Central Italy by SNP and STR analysis.', Int J Legal Med 121(3):234-7 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Hohoff C., Dewa K., Sibbing U., Hoppe K., Forster P. and Brinkmann B. (2007), 'Y-chromosomal microsatellite mutation rates in a population sample from northwestern Germany.', Int J Legal Med 121(5):359-63 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Anslinger K., Keil W., Weichhold G. and Eisenmenger W. (2000), 'Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in a population sample from Bavaria.', Int J Legal Med 113(3):189-92 [PubMed]
  • Westen AA., Kraaijenbrink T., Clarisse L., Grol LJ., Willemse P., Zuniga SB., De R., Schouten R., Der V., Weiler NE., Kal AJ., Kayser M., Sijen T. and Knijff D. (2015), 'Analysis of 36 Y-STR marker units including a concordance study among 2085 Dutch males', Forensic Sci Int Genet. 14:174-81 [DOI]
  • Alves C., Gomes V., Prata MJ., Amorim A. and Gusmão L. (2007), 'Population data for Y-chromosome haplotypes defined by 17 STRs (AmpFlSTR YFiler) in Portugal.', Forensic Sci Int 171(2-3):250-5 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Ghiani ME. and Vona G. (2002), 'Y-chromosome-specific microsatellite variation in a population sample from Sardinia (Italy).', Coll Antropol 26(2):387-401 [PubMed]
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Personal communications

YA005696, YA005584, YA005093, YA005911, YA005534, YA005779, YA005418, YA005309, YA005134, YA005918, YA005041, YA005414, YA005308, YA005484, YA005387, YA005209, YA005428, YA005346, YA005298, YA005613, YA005270, YA005524, YA005807, YA005590, YA005512, YA005276, YA005393, YA005816, YA005904, YA005011, YA005386, YA005064, YA005923, YA005852, YA005213, YA005318, YA005282, YA005518, YA005203, YA005342, YA005326, YA005143, YA005437, YA005979, YA006005, YA005466, YA005108, YA005985, YA005379, YA005839, YA005548, YA005285, YA005268, YA005625, YA005361, YA005810, YA005594, YA005160, YA005649, YA005467, YA005122, YA005710, YA005007, YA005697, YA005929, YA005109, YA005396, YA005299, YA005483, YA005322, YA005722, YA005455, YA005564, YA005059, YA005465, YA005269, YA005327
* See FAQ/Glossary (http://yhrd.org/pages/faq) for further explanations of abbreviated terms used here