Information on the East Asian - Austronesian Metapopulation

The Austronesian Metapopulation (East Asian - Austronesian) consists of 3,960 haplotypes (at least minimal) which were published in 18 population studies and were additionally submitted via personal communication (2 submissions) .

Most common haplotypes

Count DYS19 DYS389I DYS389II DYS390 DYS391 DYS392 DYS393 DYS385
76 15 12 28 24 10 13 13 12,16
49 15 12 28 23 10 14 13 13,13
42 16 12 29 20 10 12 14 13,15
39 16 12 28 23 10 14 13 13,14
37 15 12 28 23 10 14 13 12,13
34 15 13 30 23 11 14 13 13,13
28 15 12 27 23 10 14 13 13,13
28 15 12 28 23 9 14 13 13,13
28 15 12 28 24 10 13 13 12,17
27 15 13 29 23 10 14 13 13,13
Count DYS391 DYS389I DYS439 DYS389II DYS438 DYS437 DYS19 DYS392 DYS393 DYS390 DYS385
32 11 13 12 30 10 14 15 14 13 23 13,13
25 10 13 12 29 10 14 15 14 13 23 13,13
24 10 13 12 30 10 14 15 14 13 23 13,13
23 10 12 12 28 10 15 15 13 13 24 12,16
22 10 12 14 29 11 14 16 12 14 20 13,15
22 11 13 12 29 10 14 15 14 13 23 13,13
20 10 12 11 28 10 14 16 14 13 23 13,14
16 9 12 13 28 10 14 15 14 13 23 13,13
15 10 12 12 28 10 14 15 14 13 23 13,13
15 10 12 13 28 10 14 15 14 13 23 12,13
Count DYS456 DYS389I DYS390 DYS389II DYS458 DYS19 DYS385 DYS393 DYS391 DYS439 DYS635 DYS392 YGATAH4 DYS437 DYS438 DYS448
12 17 13 23 29 15 17 13,13 13 11 13 21 14 11 14 10 18
10 16 13 23 30 15 15 13,13 13 11 12 22 14 12 14 10 18
9 15 11 24 27 16 15 12,16 13 10 12 21 13 12 15 10 19
9 15 12 21 28 19 14 10,17 12 10 11 23 11 11 14 10 21
9 15 12 23 28 14 17 13,14 13 10 12 20 12 13 14 10 16.2
9 15 13 22 29 17 16 14,14 13 12 12 21 14 12 14 10 16
9 18 13 23 30 15 15 13,13 13 10 12 22 14 11 14 10 18
8 15 12 20 29 18 16 13,15 14 10 14 23 12 12 14 11 21
8 15 12 24 28 15 15 11,16 13 11 12 21 13 12 15 10 19
8 17 12 24 28 18 15 13,15 13 10 12 21 14 12 14 10 17
Count DYS576 DYS389I DYS448 DYS389II DYS19 DYS391 DYS481 DYS549 DYS533 DYS438 DYS437 DYS570 DYS635 DYS390 DYS439 DYS392 DYS643 DYS393 DYS458 DYS385 DYS456 YGATAH4
10 16 13 18 29 17 11 25 12 11 10 14 19 21 23 13 14 11 13 15 13,13 17 11
8 16 13 16 29 16 12 28 14 13 10 14 19 21 22 12 14 11 13 17 14,14 15 12
6 17 12 18 27 15 10 24 11 11 10 14 17 19 23 11 14 11 13 16 13,13 16 11
6 19 13 18 30 15 10 22 12 10 10 14 16 22 24 13 11 12 13 16 15,19 15 11
5 18 13 22 30 15 9 27 12 12 10 14 18 22 24 11 12 9 13 18 11,12 14 11
4 17 13 19 29 16 9 24 5 12 10 14 17 23 24 11 16 15 13 15 12,17 15 11
4 17 13 19 29 16 10 24 5 12 10 14 17 23 24 11 16 15 13 15 12,17 15 11
4 19 12 18 28 15 11 24 11 13 10 15 14 23 24 11 13 11 13 16 12,16 15 12
4 19 12 19 29 15 10 24 11 12 10 15 13 21 24 11 13 11 13 16 12,16 15 12
4 20 13 18 29 15 12 25 11 11 10 14 20 22 23 12 14 11 13 15 13,13 16 12
Count DYS576 DYS389I DYS635 DYS389II DYS627 DYS460 DYS458 DYS19 YGATAH4 DYS448 DYS391 DYS456 DYS390 DYS438 DYS392 DYS518 DYS570 DYS437 DYS385 DYS449 DYS393 DYS439 DYS481 DYF387S1 DYS533
9 20 13 22 30 21 10 15 15 12 18 11 16 23 10 14 36 20 14 13,13 33 13 12 25 38,40 11
5 17 12 19 28 19 9 18 15 12 19 10 15 23 10 12 34 16 13 11,12 31 12 13 21 35,38 12
3 17 13 23 29 19 11 15 16 11 19 9 15 24 10 16 34 17 14 12,16 30 13 11 24 37,38 12
3 20 13 22 29 21 10 15 15 12 18 11 16 23 10 14 36 20 14 13,13 33 13 12 25 38,40 11
2 16 12 22 28 20 10 16 14 11 20 10 14 23 10 11 38 20 16 13,13 28 13 11 24 38,38 11
2 16 12 22 28 20 10 16 14 11 20 10 14 23 10 11 38 21 16 13,13 28 13 11 24 38,38 11
2 17 12 20 29 17 10 15 15 11 17 10 17 23 10 12 39 19 14 10,14 29 14 12 26 37,42 11
2 17 13 22 31 19 10 18 13 11 20 12 15 24 11 15 37 19 14 15,19 30 12 12 25 38,39 11
2 17 13 22 31 19 10 18 13 11 20 13 15 24 11 15 37 19 14 15,19 30 12 12 25 38,39 11
2 17 13 23 29 19 11 15 16 11 19 9 15 24 10 16 34 17 14 12,17 29 13 11 24 37,38 12

 There are no Ymax haplotypes or all haplotypes are singletons.

Discrete-Laplace frequency estimation (Minimal)

Release
R67
Loci included
DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II*, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393
Central haplotypes
38
EM converged
true
EM iterations
40
GLM method
internal_coef
Init method
pam
Threshold frequency
1 in 138,772
Per locus details
DL centers distribution (download PDF)
Table of haplotype centers (click to show/hide)
DYS19 DYS389I DYS389II* DYS390 DYS391 DYS392 DYS393
1 13 13 17 25 10 12 13
2 12 14 17 23 10 13 13
3 15 12 16 24 10 14 13
4 14 12 16 23 10 14 12
5 14 14 16 23 10 14 14
6 15 13 16 25 10 13 14
7 15 12 16 24 11 13 13
8 15 12 15 23 10 14 13
9 15 12 16 24 11 13 12
10 15 12 16 21 11 11 12
11 15 12 17 21 9 12 13
12 15 12 16 23 10 12 12
13 14 13 16 23 10 11 13
14 15 13 16 23 11 14 13
15 15 13 17 23 11 14 13
16 15 13 17 24 10 13 13
17 15 13 16 25 11 13 14
18 15 13 17 22 10 11 14
19 15 12 16 24 10 13 13
20 15 12 16 21 10 11 12
21 15 12 16 24 10 13 12
22 15 12 16 23 10 14 13
23 16 12 16 23 10 12 14
24 16 12 16 25 10 13 12
25 15 12 17 24 10 13 13
26 17 12 18 23 11 15 14
27 15 13 16 23 10 14 13
28 16 14 17 25 11 11 13
29 15 14 17 24 11 13 14
30 15 14 18 22 10 11 13
31 16 12 16 23 10 14 13
32 16 12 17 23 10 14 13
33 15 13 18 24 10 11 13
34 17 12 16 24 9 13 12
35 17 13 16 23 11 14 13
36 16 12 17 20 10 12 14
37 16 13 16 22 12 14 13
38 16 13 16 24 9 16 13

Discrete-Laplace frequency estimation (Y17)

Release
R67
Loci included
DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II*, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, YGATAH4
Central haplotypes
38
EM converged
true
EM iterations
74
GLM method
internal_coef
Init method
pam
Threshold frequency
1 in 234,419,595
Per locus details
DL centers distribution (download PDF)
Table of haplotype centers (click to show/hide)
DYS19 DYS389I DYS389II* DYS390 DYS391 DYS392 DYS393 DYS437 DYS438 DYS439 DYS448 DYS456 DYS458 DYS635 YGATAH4
1 15 13 16 24 10 13 14 14 10 12 18 15 17 22 11
2 15 12 16 24 10 13 13 14 10 13 19 15 16 22 12
3 16 13 18 25 10 11 13 14 11 10 20 15 16 23 12
4 15 13 16 25 11 13 14 14 10 12 18 16 16 22 11
5 15 12 16 23 10 14 13 14 10 11 18 17 15 19 12
6 15 12 16 24 10 13 13 15 10 12 19 15 16 21 12
7 15 12 16 21 10 12 13 14 10 11 18 15 18 21 11
8 15 12 16 24 11 13 12 14 10 12 19 15 16 22 12
9 15 13 16 23 10 14 13 14 10 12 18 17 16 22 12
10 15 12 16 23 10 14 13 14 10 13 18 18 15 21 12
11 17 12 16 24 9 13 12 15 11 12 20 14 17 20 10
12 15 12 15 23 10 14 13 14 10 11 18 16 16 19 12
13 15 12 16 24 10 14 13 14 10 12 17 17 18 21 12
14 15 12 17 24 10 13 13 14 10 11 20 14 17 21 12
15 15 12 16 23 10 12 12 14 10 12 19 15 18 20 12
16 16 13 16 24 9 16 13 14 10 11 19 15 15 23 11
17 15 13 17 25 11 13 14 14 10 12 18 15 16 21 11
18 15 12 16 21 11 11 12 14 10 11 21 15 18 24 11
19 12 14 17 24 10 13 13 15 10 12 20 15 17 21 12
20 15 12 17 21 9 12 13 14 10 11 17 15 14 22 13
21 16 12 16 23 10 14 13 14 10 11 16 17 18 21 12
22 15 12 16 24 10 13 13 15 10 12 19 15 17 23 12
23 14 12 16 24 10 14 12 15 11 12 20 15 18 20 12
24 14 13 16 23 10 10 14 16 11 10 19 16 17 25 12
25 15 13 17 23 10 11 13 14 10 11 20 15 17 22 11
26 15 13 17 24 9 12 13 14 10 11 22 14 18 22 11
27 16 13 16 22 12 14 13 14 10 12 16 15 17 21 12
28 15 14 17 25 11 13 15 14 10 11 18 15 18 22 10
29 14 12 15 23 10 14 13 15 11 12 18 15 16 27 13
30 16 12 16 23 10 12 14 14 10 12 18 15 14 21 12
31 13 13 17 25 10 12 12 14 8 12 19 15 17 20 12
32 15 14 17 22 9 13 14 16 10 11 20 14 17 21 13
33 15 13 16 23 11 14 13 14 10 12 18 16 15 22 12
34 16 12 16 23 10 12 14 14 10 12 17 18 16 22 12
35 17 13 16 23 11 14 13 14 10 13 18 17 15 21 11
36 17 12 18 23 11 15 14 15 12 11 18 17 14 22 10
37 16 12 17 20 10 12 14 14 11 13 21 15 18 23 12
38 15 13 17 23 11 14 13 14 10 12 18 18 15 22 12

* Please note that DYS389I was substracted from DYS389II

Population studies

  • Hagelberg E., Kayser M., Nagy M., Roewer L., Zimdahl H., Krawczak M., Lió P. and Schiefenhövel W. (1999), 'Molecular genetic evidence for the human settlement of the Pacific: analysis of mitochondrial DNA, Y chromosome and HLA markers.', Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 354(1379):141-52 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Souto L., Gusmão L., Ferreira E., Amorim A., Côrte-Real F. and Vieira DN. (2006), 'Y-chromosome STR haplotypes in East Timor: forensic evaluation and population data.', Forensic Sci Int 156(2-3):261-5 [PubMed]
  • Kim YJ., Shin DJ., Kim JM., Jin HJ., Kwak KD., Han MS., Choi SK. and Kim W. (2001), 'Y-chromosome STR haplotype profiling in the Korean population.', Forensic Sci Int 115(3):231-7 [PubMed]
  • Ballantyne KN., Ralf A., Aboukhalid R., Niaz M., Anjos MJ., Ayub Q., Balažic J., Ballantyne J., David J., Berger B., Bobillo C., Bouabdellah M., Burri H., Capal T., Caratti S., Cárdenas J., Cartault F., Elizeu F., Carvalho M., Cheng B., Michael D., Comas D., Corach D., Maria E., Davison S., De P., Corazon M., Decorte R., Dobosz T., Berit M., Elmrghni S., Gliwiński M., Sara C., Grol L., Haas C., Hanson E., Henke J., Henke L., Herrera-Rodríguez F., Carolyn R., Holmlund G., Honda K., Immel UD., Inokuchi S., Mark A., Kaddura M., Jong S., Soon H., Kim W., Turi E., Klausriegler E., Kling D., Kovačević L., Kovatsi L., Krajewski P., Kravchenko S., Maarten H., Young E., Lessig R., Ludmila A., Marjanović D., Minarik M., Mizuno N., Moreira H., Morling N., Mukherjee M., Munier P., Nagaraju J., Neuhuber F., Nie S., Nilasitsataporn P., Nishi T., Hye H., Olofsson J., Onofri V., Jukka U., Pamjav H., Parson W., Petlach M., Phillips C., Ploski R., Samayamantri P., Primorac D., Gludhug A., Purps J., Rangel-Villalobos H., Rębała K., Rerkamnuaychoke B., Rey D., Robino C., Roewer L., Rosa A., Sajantila A., Sala A., Jazelyn M., Sanz P., Schmitt C., Anil K., Dayse A., Shin KJ., Sijen T., Sirker M., Siváková D., Škaro V., Solano-Matamoros C., Souto L., Stenzl V., Sudoyo H., Syndercombe-Court D., Tagliabracci A., Taylor D., Tillmar A., Iosif S., Tyler-Smith C., Kristiaan J., Vanek D., Völgyi A., Ward D., Willemse P., Eric PH., Rita YY., Zupanič I., KayserAmato M., Davison S., De P., Corazon M., Decorte R., Dobosz T., Berit M., Elmrghni S., Gliwiński M., Sara C., Grol L., Haas C., Hanson E., Henke J., Henke L., Herrera-Rodríguez F., Carolyn R., Holmlund G., Honda K., Immel UD., Inokuchi S., Mark A., Kaddura M., Jong S., Soon H., Kim W., Turi E., Klausriegler E., Kling D., Kovačević L., Kovatsi L., Krajewski P., Kravchenko S., Maarten H., Young E., Lessig R., Ludmila A., Marjanović D., Minarik M., Mizuno N., Moreira H., Morling N., Mukherjee M., Munier P., Nagaraju J., Neuhuber F., Nie S., Nilasitsataporn P., Nishi T., Hye H., Olofsson J., Onofri V., Jukka U., Pamjav H., Parson W., Petlach M., Phillips C., Ploski R., Samayamantri P., Primorac D., Gludhug A., Purps J., Rangel-Villalobos H., Rębała K., Rerkamnuaychoke B., Rey D., Robino C., Roewer L., Rosa A., Sajantila A., Sala A., Jazelyn M., Sanz P., Schmitt C., Anil K., Dayse A., Shin KJ., Sijen T., Sirker M., Siváková D., Škaro V., Solano-Matamoros C., Souto L., Stenzl V., Sudoyo H., Syndercombe-Court D., Tagliabracci A., Taylor D., Tillmar A., Iosif S., Tyler-Smith C., Kristiaan J., Vanek D., Völgyi A., Ward D., Willemse P., Eric PH., Rita YY., Zupanič I. and Kayser M. (2014), 'Toward Male Individualization with Rapidly Mutating Y-Chromosomal Short Tandem Repeats', Human Mutation 35(8):1021-1032 [DOI]
  • Miranda JJ., Benecke M., Hidding M. and Schmitt C. (2001), 'Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat haplotypes at the loci DYS393, DYS19, DYS392, and DYS385-I/II, DYS390, DYS389-I/II, and DYS391 in a Filipino population sample.', J Forensic Sci 46(5):1250-3 [PubMed]
  • Salvador JM., Rodriguez JJRB., Carandang LC., Agmata AB., Honrado ML., Delfin FC. and Ungria D. (2019), 'Filipino DNA Variation at 36 Y-chromosomal Short Tandem Repeat (STR) Marker Units', Philippine Journal of Science 148(S1):43-52
  • Chang YM., Perumal R., Keat PY. and Kuehn DL. (2007), 'Haplotype diversity of 16 Y-chromosomal STRs in three main ethnic populations (Malays, Chinese and Indians) in Malaysia.', Forensic Sci Int 167(1):70-6 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Yong RY., Lee LK. and Yap EP. (2006), 'Y-chromosome STR haplotype diversity in three ethnic populations in Singapore.', Forensic Sci Int 159(2-3):244-57 [PubMed]
  • Chang YM., Swaran Y., Phoon YK., Sothirasan K., Sim HT., Lim KB. and Kuehn D. (2009), 'Haplotype diversity of 17 Y-chromosomal STRs in three native Sarawak populations (Iban, Bidayuh and Melanau) in East Malaysia.', Forensic Sci Int Genet 3(3):e77-80 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Wu FC., Ho CW., Pu CE., Hu KY., Willuweit S., Roewer L. and Liu DH. (2011), 'Y-chromosomal STRs haplotypes in the Taiwanese Paiwan population.', Int J Legal Med 125(1):39-43 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Zeng Z., Rowold DJ., Garcia-Bertrand R., Calderon S., Regueiro M., Li L., Zhong M. and Herrera RJ. (2014), 'Taiwanese aborigines: genetic heterogeneity and paternal contribution to Oceania', Gene 542(2):240-7 [DOI]
  • Wu FC., Ho CW., Pu CE., Hu KY. and Liu DH. (2009), 'Genetic polymorphisms of 17 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat loci in Atayal population of Taiwan', Croat Med J 50(3):313-20 [DOI]
  • Xu H., Wang CC., Shrestha R., Wang LX., Zhang M., He Y., Kidd JR., Kidd KK., Jin L. and Li H. (2015), 'Inferring population structure and demographic history using Y‐STR data from worldwide populations', Mol Genet Genomics 290(1):141-50 [DOI]
  • Subbiah VK., Narayanan S., Yew CW., Robert R. and Hoque MZ. (2018), 'Genetic Diversity of Five Native Populations (Dusun, Rungus, Sonsogon, Murut and Sungai-Lingkabau Paitan) of North Borneo, East Malaysia based on 17 Y-chromosomal Short-Tandem Repeats Polymorphism', Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine 1(7): [Link] [DOI]
  • Syed HS., Nany RK., Alwi R., Panneerchelvam S., Nor M., Nur A. and Zafarina Z. (2018), 'Paternal lineage affinity of the Malay subethnic and Orang Asli populations in Peninsular Malaysia', Int J Legal Med 132(4):1087-90 [Link] [DOI]
  • Palencia-Madrid L., Baeta M., Villaescusa P., Nuñez C., Pancorbo D., Luis JR., Fadhlaoui-Zid K., Somarelli J., Garcia-Bertrand R. and Herrera RJ. (2019), 'The Marquesans at the fringes of the Austronesian expansion', Eur J Hum Genet 27(5):801-10 [DOI]
  • Li L., Xu Y., Luis JR., Alfonso-Sanchez MA., Zeng Z., Garcia-Bertrand R. and Herrera RJ. (2019), 'Cebú, Thailand and Taiwanese aboriginal populations according to Y-STR loci', Gene 1:100001 [DOI]
  • Hakim HM., Khan HO., Ismail SA., Lalung J., Kofi AE., Nelson BR., Abdullah MT., Chambers GK. and Edinur HA. (2020), 'Population data for 23 Y chromosome STR loci using the Powerplex® Y23 STR kit for the Kedayan population in Malaysia', Int J Legal Med 134:1335–1337 [Link] [DOI]

Personal communications

YA002928, YA005629
* See FAQ/Glossary (http://yhrd.org/pages/faq) for further explanations of abbreviated terms used here