Mutation Rates

Marker Combined Mutationrate References
DYS19 2.20e-03 (51 in 23153) Pontes2007, Sánchez-Diz2008, Turrina2006, Berger2005, Tsai2002, Goedbloed2009, Hohoff2007, Lee2007, Domingues2007, Decker2008, Ballard2005a, Kurihara2004, Gusmão2005, Kayser2000, Heyer1997, Dupuy2004, Bianchi1998, Budowle2005, Dupuy2001, Pestoni1999, Ge2009, Adnan2018, Laouina2013, Bugoye2018, Petrovic2018, Mertoglu2018, Lin2020, Ambrosio2020, Fu2020, Fan2020a, FanH2021, Otagiri2022, Lee2023, Liu2023, Sergey Kravchenko(1), Ludmila A. Livshits (1), Svetlana A. Limborska(2), Landeskriminalamt BW; FB230 - Molekulargenetische Untersuchungen, Maria Seidel, Josephine Purps, Patricia Entz, Carmen Krüger, Petra Otremba, Marion Nagy, Lutz Roewer, Chris Tyler-Smith, Wei Wei, Xue Y, Ayub Q, Mohyuddin A, Qamar R, Zerjal T, Helgason A, Mehdi SQ, Sheila Marie Tabulina Angustia
DYS389I 2.43e-03 (52 in 21397) Pontes2007, Sánchez-Diz2008, Turrina2006, Berger2005, Tsai2002, Goedbloed2009, Hohoff2007, Lee2007, Domingues2007, Decker2008, Ballard2005a, Kurihara2004, Gusmão2005, Kayser2000, Dupuy2004, Bianchi1998, Budowle2005, Dupuy2001, Pestoni1999, Lessig1998, Ge2009, Adnan2018, Laouina2013, Bugoye2018, Petrovic2018, Mertoglu2018, Lin2020, Ambrosio2020, Fu2020, Fan2020a, FanH2021, Otagiri2022, Lee2023, Liu2023, Sergey Kravchenko(1), Ludmila A. Livshits (1), Svetlana A. Limborska(2), Landeskriminalamt BW; FB230 - Molekulargenetische Untersuchungen, Maria Seidel, Josephine Purps, Patricia Entz, Carmen Krüger, Petra Otremba, Marion Nagy, Lutz Roewer, Chris Tyler-Smith, Wei Wei, Xue Y, Ayub Q, Mohyuddin A, Qamar R, Zerjal T, Helgason A, Mehdi SQ, Sheila Marie Tabulina Angustia
DYS389II 4.99e-03 (107 in 21450) Pontes2007, Sánchez-Diz2008, Turrina2006, Berger2005, Tsai2002, Goedbloed2009, Hohoff2007, Lee2007, Domingues2007, Decker2008, Ballard2005a, Kurihara2004, Gusmão2005, Kayser2000, Dupuy2004, Bianchi1998, Budowle2005, Dupuy2001, Pestoni1999, Lessig1998, Ge2009, Adnan2018, Laouina2013, Bugoye2018, Petrovic2018, Mertoglu2018, Mertoglu2018, Lin2020, Ambrosio2020, Fu2020, Fan2020a, FanH2021, Otagiri2022, Lee2023, Liu2023, Sergey Kravchenko(1), Ludmila A. Livshits (1), Svetlana A. Limborska(2), Landeskriminalamt BW; FB230 - Molekulargenetische Untersuchungen, Maria Seidel, Josephine Purps, Patricia Entz, Carmen Krüger, Petra Otremba, Marion Nagy, Lutz Roewer, Chris Tyler-Smith, Wei Wei, Xue Y, Ayub Q, Mohyuddin A, Qamar R, Zerjal T, Helgason A, Mehdi SQ, Sheila Marie Tabulina Angustia
DYS390 2.00e-03 (44 in 22031) Pontes2007, Sánchez-Diz2008, Turrina2006, Berger2005, Tsai2002, Goedbloed2009, Hohoff2007, Lee2007, Domingues2007, Decker2008, Ballard2005a, Kurihara2004, Gusmão2005, Kayser2000, Heyer1997, Dupuy2004, Bianchi1998, Budowle2005, Dupuy2001, Pestoni1999, Lessig1998, Ge2009, Adnan2018, Laouina2013, Bugoye2018, Petrovic2018, Mertoglu2018, Ambrosio2020, Fu2020, Fan2020a, FanH2021, Otagiri2022, Lee2023, Liu2023, Sergey Kravchenko(1), Ludmila A. Livshits (1), Svetlana A. Limborska(2), Landeskriminalamt BW; FB230 - Molekulargenetische Untersuchungen, Maria Seidel, Josephine Purps, Patricia Entz, Carmen Krüger, Petra Otremba, Marion Nagy, Lutz Roewer, Chris Tyler-Smith, Wei Wei, Xue Y, Ayub Q, Mohyuddin A, Qamar R, Zerjal T, Helgason A, Mehdi SQ, Sheila Marie Tabulina Angustia
DYS391 2.26e-03 (51 in 22545) Pontes2007, Sánchez-Diz2008, Turrina2006, Berger2005, Tsai2002, Goedbloed2009, Hohoff2007, Lee2007, Domingues2007, Decker2008, Ballard2005a, Kurihara2004, Gusmão2005, Kayser2000, Heyer1997, Dupuy2004, Bianchi1998, Budowle2005, Dupuy2001, Ge2009, Adnan2018, Laouina2013, Bugoye2018, Petrovic2018, Mertoglu2018, Lin2020, Ambrosio2020, Fu2020, Fan2020a, FanH2021, Otagiri2022, Lee2023, Liu2023, Sergey Kravchenko(1), Ludmila A. Livshits (1), Svetlana A. Limborska(2), Landeskriminalamt BW; FB230 - Molekulargenetische Untersuchungen, Maria Seidel, Josephine Purps, Patricia Entz, Carmen Krüger, Petra Otremba, Marion Nagy, Lutz Roewer, Chris Tyler-Smith, Wei Wei, Xue Y, Ayub Q, Mohyuddin A, Qamar R, Zerjal T, Helgason A, Mehdi SQ, Sheila Marie Tabulina Angustia
DYS392 4.45e-04 (10 in 22473) Pontes2007, Sánchez-Diz2008, Turrina2006, Berger2005, Tsai2002, Goedbloed2009, Hohoff2007, Lee2007, Domingues2007, Decker2008, Ballard2005a, Kurihara2004, Gusmão2005, Kayser2000, Heyer1997, Dupuy2004, Bianchi1998, Budowle2005, Dupuy2001, Ge2009, Adnan2018, Laouina2013, Bugoye2018, Petrovic2018, Mertoglu2018, Lin2020, Ambrosio2020, Fu2020, Fan2020a, FanH2021, Otagiri2022, Lee2023, Liu2023, Sergey Kravchenko(1), Ludmila A. Livshits (1), Svetlana A. Limborska(2), Landeskriminalamt BW; FB230 - Molekulargenetische Untersuchungen, Maria Seidel, Josephine Purps, Patricia Entz, Carmen Krüger, Petra Otremba, Marion Nagy, Lutz Roewer, Chris Tyler-Smith, Wei Wei, Xue Y, Ayub Q, Mohyuddin A, Qamar R, Zerjal T, Helgason A, Mehdi SQ, Sheila Marie Tabulina Angustia
DYS393 1.27e-03 (27 in 21323) Pontes2007, Sánchez-Diz2008, Turrina2006, Berger2005, Tsai2002, Goedbloed2009, Hohoff2007, Lee2007, Domingues2007, Decker2008, Ballard2005a, Kurihara2004, Gusmão2005, Kayser2000, Heyer1997, Dupuy2004, Bianchi1998, Budowle2005, Dupuy2001, Pestoni1999, Ge2009, Adnan2018, Laouina2013, Bugoye2018, Petrovic2018, Mertoglu2018, Lin2020, Ambrosio2020, Fu2020, Fan2020a, FanH2021, Otagiri2022, Lee2023, Liu2023, Sergey Kravchenko(1), Ludmila A. Livshits (1), Svetlana A. Limborska(2), Landeskriminalamt BW; FB230 - Molekulargenetische Untersuchungen, Maria Seidel, Josephine Purps, Patricia Entz, Carmen Krüger, Petra Otremba, Marion Nagy, Lutz Roewer, Chris Tyler-Smith, Wei Wei, Xue Y, Ayub Q, Mohyuddin A, Qamar R, Zerjal T, Helgason A, Mehdi SQ, Sheila Marie Tabulina Angustia
DYS385 2.78e-03 (111 in 39944) Pontes2007, Sánchez-Diz2008, Turrina2006, Berger2005, Tsai2002, Goedbloed2009, Hohoff2007, Lee2007, Domingues2007, Decker2008, Ballard2005a, Kurihara2004, Gusmão2005, Kayser2000, Heyer1997, Dupuy2004, Budowle2005, Dupuy2001, Lessig1998, Ge2009, Adnan2018, Laouina2013, Bugoye2018, Petrovic2018, Mertoglu2018, Lin2020, Ambrosio2020, Fu2020, Fan2020a, FanH2021, Otagiri2022, Lee2023, Liu2023, Sergey Kravchenko(1), Ludmila A. Livshits (1), Svetlana A. Limborska(2), Landeskriminalamt BW; FB230 - Molekulargenetische Untersuchungen, Maria Seidel, Josephine Purps, Patricia Entz, Carmen Krüger, Petra Otremba, Marion Nagy, Lutz Roewer, Chris Tyler-Smith, Wei Wei, Xue Y, Ayub Q, Mohyuddin A, Qamar R, Zerjal T, Helgason A, Mehdi SQ, Sheila Marie Tabulina Angustia
DYS439 4.46e-03 (79 in 17709) Pontes2007, Sánchez-Diz2008, Turrina2006, Berger2005, Goedbloed2009, Hohoff2007, Lee2007, Domingues2007, Decker2008, Ballard2005a, Kurihara2004, Gusmão2005, Budowle2005, Ge2009, Adnan2018, Laouina2013, Bugoye2018, Petrovic2018, Mertoglu2018, Lin2020, Ambrosio2020, Fu2020, Fan2020a, FanH2021, Otagiri2022, Lee2023, Liu2023, Landeskriminalamt BW; FB230 - Molekulargenetische Untersuchungen, Maria Seidel, Josephine Purps, Patricia Entz, Carmen Krüger, Petra Otremba, Marion Nagy, Lutz Roewer, Chris Tyler-Smith, Wei Wei, Xue Y, Ayub Q, Mohyuddin A, Qamar R, Zerjal T, Helgason A, Mehdi SQ, Sheila Marie Tabulina Angustia
DYS438 3.95e-04 (7 in 17731) Pontes2007, Sánchez-Diz2008, Turrina2006, Berger2005, Goedbloed2009, Hohoff2007, Lee2007, Domingues2007, Decker2008, Ballard2005a, Kurihara2004, Gusmão2005, Budowle2005, Ge2009, Adnan2018, Laouina2013, Bugoye2018, Petrovic2018, Mertoglu2018, Lin2020, Ambrosio2020, Fu2020, Fan2020a, FanH2021, Otagiri2022, Lee2023, Liu2023, Landeskriminalamt BW; FB230 - Molekulargenetische Untersuchungen, Maria Seidel, Josephine Purps, Patricia Entz, Carmen Krüger, Petra Otremba, Marion Nagy, Lutz Roewer, Chris Tyler-Smith, Wei Wei, Xue Y, Ayub Q, Mohyuddin A, Qamar R, Zerjal T, Helgason A, Mehdi SQ, Sheila Marie Tabulina Angustia
DYS437 1.19e-03 (21 in 17706) Pontes2007, Sánchez-Diz2008, Turrina2006, Berger2005, Goedbloed2009, Hohoff2007, Lee2007, Domingues2007, Decker2008, Ballard2005a, Kurihara2004, Gusmão2005, Budowle2005, Ge2009, Adnan2018, Laouina2013, Bugoye2018, Petrovic2018, Mertoglu2018, Lin2020, Ambrosio2020, Fu2020, Fan2020a, FanH2021, Otagiri2022, Lee2023, Liu2023, Landeskriminalamt BW; FB230 - Molekulargenetische Untersuchungen, Maria Seidel, Josephine Purps, Patricia Entz, Carmen Krüger, Petra Otremba, Marion Nagy, Lutz Roewer, Chris Tyler-Smith, Wei Wei, Xue Y, Ayub Q, Mohyuddin A, Qamar R, Zerjal T, Helgason A, Mehdi SQ, Sheila Marie Tabulina Angustia
DYS456 4.06e-03 (58 in 14278) Pontes2007, Sánchez-Diz2008, Turrina2006, Berger2005, Goedbloed2009, Lee2007, Decker2008, Ge2009, Adnan2018, Laouina2013, Bugoye2018, Petrovic2018, Mertoglu2018, Lin2020, Ambrosio2020, Fu2020, Fan2020a, FanH2021, Otagiri2022, Lee2023, Liu2023, Landeskriminalamt BW; FB230 - Molekulargenetische Untersuchungen, Maria Seidel, Josephine Purps, Patricia Entz, Carmen Krüger, Petra Otremba, Marion Nagy, Lutz Roewer, Chris Tyler-Smith, Wei Wei, Xue Y, Ayub Q, Mohyuddin A, Qamar R, Zerjal T, Helgason A, Mehdi SQ, Sheila Marie Tabulina Angustia
DYS458 6.52e-03 (93 in 14260) Pontes2007, Sánchez-Diz2008, Turrina2006, Berger2005, Goedbloed2009, Lee2007, Decker2008, Ge2009, Adnan2018, Laouina2013, Bugoye2018, Petrovic2018, Mertoglu2018, Lin2020, Ambrosio2020, Fu2020, Fan2020a, FanH2021, Otagiri2022, Lee2023, Liu2023, Landeskriminalamt BW; FB230 - Molekulargenetische Untersuchungen, Maria Seidel, Josephine Purps, Patricia Entz, Carmen Krüger, Petra Otremba, Marion Nagy, Lutz Roewer, Chris Tyler-Smith, Wei Wei, Xue Y, Ayub Q, Mohyuddin A, Qamar R, Zerjal T, Helgason A, Mehdi SQ, Sheila Marie Tabulina Angustia
DYS635 4.36e-03 (66 in 15134) Pontes2007, Sánchez-Diz2008, Turrina2006, Berger2005, Goedbloed2009, Lee2007, Decker2008, Gusmão2005, Ge2009, Adnan2018, Laouina2013, Bugoye2018, Petrovic2018, Mertoglu2018, Lin2020, Ambrosio2020, Fu2020, Fan2020a, FanH2021, Otagiri2022, Lee2023, Liu2023, Landeskriminalamt BW; FB230 - Molekulargenetische Untersuchungen, Maria Seidel, Josephine Purps, Patricia Entz, Carmen Krüger, Petra Otremba, Marion Nagy, Lutz Roewer, Chris Tyler-Smith, Wei Wei, Xue Y, Ayub Q, Mohyuddin A, Qamar R, Zerjal T, Helgason A, Mehdi SQ, Sheila Marie Tabulina Angustia
YGATAH4 2.55e-03 (39 in 15316) Pontes2007, Sánchez-Diz2008, Turrina2006, Berger2005, Goedbloed2009, Lee2007, Decker2008, Kurihara2004, Gusmão2005, Ge2009, Adnan2018, Laouina2013, Bugoye2018, Petrovic2018, Mertoglu2018, Lin2020, Ambrosio2020, Fu2020, Fan2020a, FanH2021, Otagiri2022, Lee2023, Liu2023, Landeskriminalamt BW; FB230 - Molekulargenetische Untersuchungen, Maria Seidel, Josephine Purps, Patricia Entz, Carmen Krüger, Petra Otremba, Marion Nagy, Lutz Roewer, Chris Tyler-Smith, Wei Wei, Xue Y, Ayub Q, Mohyuddin A, Qamar R, Zerjal T, Helgason A, Mehdi SQ, Sheila Marie Tabulina Angustia
DYS448 1.19e-03 (17 in 14281) Pontes2007, Sánchez-Diz2008, Turrina2006, Berger2005, Goedbloed2009, Lee2007, Decker2008, Ge2009, Adnan2018, Laouina2013, Bugoye2018, Petrovic2018, Mertoglu2018, Lin2020, Ambrosio2020, Fu2020, Fan2020a, FanH2021, Otagiri2022, Lee2023, Liu2023, Landeskriminalamt BW; FB230 - Molekulargenetische Untersuchungen, Maria Seidel, Josephine Purps, Patricia Entz, Carmen Krüger, Petra Otremba, Marion Nagy, Lutz Roewer, Chris Tyler-Smith, Wei Wei, Xue Y, Ayub Q, Mohyuddin A, Qamar R, Zerjal T, Helgason A, Mehdi SQ, Sheila Marie Tabulina Angustia
DYS576 1.16e-02 (108 in 9287) Ballantyne2010, LiYuan2018, Petrovic2018, Lin2020, Ambrosio2020, Fu2020, Fan2020a, FanH2021, Otagiri2022, Lee2023, Liu2023, Maria Seidel, Josephine Purps, Patricia Entz, Carmen Krüger, Petra Otremba, Marion Nagy, Lutz Roewer, Chris Tyler-Smith, Wei Wei, Xue Y, Ayub Q, Mohyuddin A, Qamar R, Zerjal T, Helgason A, Mehdi SQ, Sheila Marie Tabulina Angustia
DYS481 3.75e-03 (33 in 8802) Ballantyne2010, Petrovic2018, Lin2020, Ambrosio2020, Fu2020, Fan2020a, FanH2021, Otagiri2022, Lee2023, Liu2023, Maria Seidel, Josephine Purps, Patricia Entz, Carmen Krüger, Petra Otremba, Marion Nagy, Lutz Roewer, Chris Tyler-Smith, Wei Wei, Xue Y, Ayub Q, Mohyuddin A, Qamar R, Zerjal T, Helgason A, Mehdi SQ, Sheila Marie Tabulina Angustia
DYS549 3.03e-03 (26 in 8567) Ballantyne2010, Petrovic2018, Lin2020, Ambrosio2020, Fu2020, Fan2020a, FanH2021, Lee2023, Liu2023, Maria Seidel, Josephine Purps, Patricia Entz, Carmen Krüger, Petra Otremba, Marion Nagy, Lutz Roewer, Chris Tyler-Smith, Wei Wei, Xue Y, Ayub Q, Mohyuddin A, Qamar R, Zerjal T, Helgason A, Mehdi SQ, Sheila Marie Tabulina Angustia
DYS533 2.73e-03 (24 in 8795) Ballantyne2010, Petrovic2018, Lin2020, Ambrosio2020, Fu2020, Fan2020a, FanH2021, Otagiri2022, Lee2023, Liu2023, Maria Seidel, Josephine Purps, Patricia Entz, Carmen Krüger, Petra Otremba, Marion Nagy, Lutz Roewer, Chris Tyler-Smith, Wei Wei, Xue Y, Ayub Q, Mohyuddin A, Qamar R, Zerjal T, Helgason A, Mehdi SQ, Sheila Marie Tabulina Angustia
DYS570 8.01e-03 (72 in 8988) Ballantyne2010, LiYuan2018, Petrovic2018, Lin2020, Ambrosio2020, Fu2020, Fan2020a, FanH2021, Otagiri2022, Lee2023, Liu2023, Maria Seidel, Josephine Purps, Patricia Entz, Carmen Krüger, Petra Otremba, Marion Nagy, Lutz Roewer, Chris Tyler-Smith, Wei Wei, Xue Y, Ayub Q, Mohyuddin A, Qamar R, Zerjal T, Helgason A, Mehdi SQ, Sheila Marie Tabulina Angustia
DYS643 9.98e-04 (8 in 8018) Ballantyne2010, Petrovic2018, Ambrosio2020, Fu2020, Fan2020a, FanH2021, Lee2023, Liu2023, Maria Seidel, Josephine Purps, Patricia Entz, Carmen Krüger, Petra Otremba, Marion Nagy, Lutz Roewer, Chris Tyler-Smith, Wei Wei, Xue Y, Ayub Q, Mohyuddin A, Qamar R, Zerjal T, Helgason A, Mehdi SQ, Sheila Marie Tabulina Angustia
DYS627 1.39e-02 (103 in 7404) Ballantyne2010, LiYuan2018, Lin2020, Fan2020a, FanH2021, Otagiri2022, Liu2023
DYS460 4.55e-03 (32 in 7037) Ballantyne2010, Lin2020, Fu2020, Fan2020a, FanH2021, Otagiri2022, Liu2023
DYS518 1.06e-02 (76 in 7191) Ballantyne2010, LiYuan2018, Lin2020, Fan2020a, FanH2021, Otagiri2022, Liu2023
DYS449 9.64e-03 (70 in 7258) Ballantyne2010, LiYuan2018, Lin2020, Fan2020a, FanH2021, Otagiri2022, Liu2023
DYF387S1 6.47e-03 (77 in 11899) Ballantyne2010, LiYuan2018, Lin2020, Fan2020a, FanH2021, Otagiri2022, Liu2023
* See FAQ/Glossary (http://yhrd.org/pages/faq) for further explanations of abbreviated terms used here