List of Y-SNPs not suitable for inclusion in the YHRD

We list here all Y-SNP markers that are not suitable for inclusion in the YHRD. Please don’t submit analysis results for those markers or type additional markers to support your findings.

  • P25 - Invalid Recurrent within R1b. Samples with P25 as the final marker will be dropped. Downstream (e.g. M269 or M167) and/or the upstream marker (M343) need to be typed instead. See Adams SM., King TE., Bosch E., Jobling MA. (2006), ‘The case of the unreliable SNP: recurrent back-mutation of Y-chromosomal marker P25 through gene conversion.’, Forensic Sci Int 159(1), 14-20 [Pubmed] [DOI]
  • P41, P37, L202, and L203 - Invalid Recurrent marker with several states. This marker is completely dropped when submitted. Downstream and/or the upstream markers need to be typed instead. See Niederstätter H., Berger B., Erhart D., Willuweit S., Geppert M., Gassner C., Schennach H., Parson W., Roewer L. (2013), ‘Multiple recurrent mutations at four human Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphism sites in a 37 bp sequence tract on the ARSDP1 pseudogene.’, Forensic Sci Int Genet 7, 593-600 [Pubmed] [DOI]
  • M35, M78, M81 and M215 are potentially recurrent. See Fernandes AT., Rosa A., Gonçalves R., Jesus J., Brehm A. (2008), ‘The Y-chromosome short tandem repeats variation within haplogroup E3b: evidence of recurrent mutation in SNP.’, Am J Hum Biol 20(2), 185-90 [Pubmed] [DOI] and Cruciani F., Trombetta B., Novelletto A., Scozzari R. (2008), ‘Recurrent mutation in SNPs within Y chromosome E3b (E-M215) haplogroup: a rebuttal.’, Am J Hum Biol 20(5), 614-6 [Pubmed] [DOI]

Recurrent markes with a stable/reliable branch assignment should be named according to their branch e.g. marker P203 is defining O1 with P203@O1 whereas P203 is defining I1 with P203@I1. Older recurrent markers got a trailing “.1” or “.2” like SRY1532.

List of all recurrent markers currently stored in the YHRD:

  • P203@O1 is defining O1-P203
  • P37.2 is defining
  • SRY10831.2 is defining R1a-M448
  • SRY1532.2 is defining R1a-M448
* See FAQ/Glossary ( for further explanations of abbriviated terms used here