Information on the African Metapopulation

The African Metapopulation (African) consists of 20,196 haplotypes (at least minimal) which were published in 37 population studies and were additionally submitted via personal communication (32 submissions) .

Most common haplotypes

Count DYS19 DYS389I DYS389II DYS390 DYS391 DYS392 DYS393 DYS385
276 15 13 31 21 10 11 13 16,17
242 14 13 29 24 11 13 13 11,14
125 15 13 30 21 10 11 13 16,17
124 15 13 30 21 10 11 14 15,16
114 15 13 31 21 11 11 13 16,17
110 15 13 31 21 10 11 13 16,16
108 17 13 30 21 10 11 14 17,18
107 14 13 29 23 11 13 13 11,14
104 15 14 32 24 10 11 13 11,11
99 16 13 30 21 10 11 15 17,18
Count DYS391 DYS389I DYS439 DYS389II DYS438 DYS437 DYS19 DYS392 DYS393 DYS390 DYS385
98 11 13 12 29 12 15 14 13 13 24 11,14
89 10 13 11 31 11 14 15 11 13 21 16,17
69 10 13 12 31 11 14 15 11 13 21 16,17
54 10 14 12 32 10 14 15 11 13 24 11,11
52 11 13 11 31 11 14 15 11 13 21 16,17
50 10 13 12 30 11 13 17 11 13 21 17,18
50 10 14 11 33 11 14 15 11 13 21 16,17
48 10 13 12 30 11 14 17 11 14 21 17,18
45 10 13 12 30 11 14 15 11 14 21 15,16
40 10 14 12 31 11 14 17 11 15 21 17,19
Count DYS456 DYS389I DYS390 DYS389II DYS458 DYS19 DYS385 DYS393 DYS391 DYS439 DYS635 DYS392 YGATAH4 DYS437 DYS438 DYS448
32 15 14 21 33 17 15 16,17 13 10 11 21 11 12 14 11 21
19 15 12 26 28 18 14 15,20 13 10 11 24 11 11 14 11 19
17 17 14 21 31 17 17 17,19 15 10 12 21 11 11 14 11 21
16 15 13 21 31 16 15 16,17 13 10 11 21 11 12 14 11 21
16 16 13 21 30 16 17 18,18 13 10 12 22 11 11 13 11 21
13 13 14 24 33 18 15 11,11 14 10 12 17 11 14 14 10 23
13 15 12 25 28 17 14 14,14 13 10 11 23 11 11 15 11 19
13 16 13 24 29 17 14 11,14 13 11 12 23 13 12 15 12 19
12 15 14 23 29 17 15 13,17 13 10 11 20 14 11 14 9 19
12 16 13 21 30 15 16 16,20 15 10 12 21 11 11 14 11 20
Count DYS576 DYS389I DYS448 DYS389II DYS19 DYS391 DYS481 DYS549 DYS533 DYS438 DYS437 DYS570 DYS635 DYS390 DYS439 DYS392 DYS643 DYS393 DYS458 DYS385 DYS456 YGATAH4
17 16 14 21 33 15 10 28 11 11 11 14 19 21 21 11 11 14 13 17 16,17 15 12
10 15 12 19 28 14 10 25 13 12 11 14 18 24 26 11 11 11 13 18 15,20 15 11
10 17 14 23 33 15 10 25 11 11 10 14 17 17 24 12 11 13 14 18 11,11 13 14
8 15 14 19 29 15 10 21 12 11 9 14 16 20 23 11 14 10 13 17 13,17 15 11
8 15 14 21 30 15 10 26 12 11 11 14 19 21 21 12 11 15 13 17 15,17 15 12
8 17 13 20 31 14 11 22 13 12 10 14 17 21 25 13 11 12 13 15 19,20 15 12
8 17 14 21 31 16 10 27 11 11 11 14 18 21 21 12 11 13 15 16 16,20 15 11
7 18 13 20 30 15 10 23 11 11 11 14 18 22 21 11 11 11 14 19 15,17 15 12
6 19 14 23 32 15 10 24 11 11 10 14 17 17 24 12 12 12 13 18 11,12 13 12
5 15 12 21 30 15 10 26 11 11 11 14 20 21 21 12 11 14 13 16 17,18 16 12
Count DYS576 DYS389I DYS635 DYS389II DYS627 DYS460 DYS458 DYS19 YGATAH4 DYS448 DYS391 DYS456 DYS390 DYS438 DYS392 DYS518 DYS570 DYS437 DYS385 DYS449 DYS393 DYS439 DYS481 DYF387S1 DYS533
9 16 14 21 33 21 10 17 15 12 21 10 15 21 11 11 39 19 14 16,17 28 13 11 28 36,39 11
8 18 12 22 30 18 10 15 15 11 19,20 9 17 22 10 12 37 19 16 16,16 32 13 13 27 37,37 12
6 17 13 23 29 20 11 18 15 11 18 10 15 24 12 14 38 18 14 13,15 30 13 11 22 37,39 11
4 15 12 24 28 21 10 18 14 11 19 11 15 25 12 11 41 18 14 13,18 27 13 12 25 37,39 12
4 15 13 23 30 22 11 18 15 11 20 10 15 21 11 11 40 20 14 16,17 31 13 13 26 37,38 13
4 15 14 20 29 17 10 17 15 11 19 10 15 23 9 14 34 16 14 13,17 35 13 11 21 38,38 11
4 19 13 21 30 20 10 16 17 11 21 10 17 21 11 11 41 17 14 18,18 26 14 12 24 40,41 11
3 15 12 20 30 20 10 17 17 11 21 10 15 21 11 11 38 19 14 16,18 31 13 12 28 35,38 11
3 15 13 21 29 19 10 16 14 12 21 10 14 21 11 11 39 19 14 16,18 28 13 12 23 35,38 11
3 15 13 22 30 19 11 15 16 11 20 10 16 21 11 11 39 18 14 16,17 31 15 12 26 38,38 12
Count DYS19 DYS389I DYS389II DYS390 DYS391 DYS392 DYS393 DYS385 DYS439 DYS438 DYS437 DYS456 DYS458 DYS635 YGATAH4 DYS448 DYS576 DYS481 DYS549 DYS533 DYS570 DYS643 DYS627 DYS460 DYS518 DYS449 DYF387S1
7 15 14 33 21 10 11 13 16,17 11 11 14 15 17 21 12 21 16 28 11 11 19 14 21 10 39 28 36,39
4 15 14 29 23 10 14 13 13,17 11 9 14 15 17 20 11 19 15 21 12 11 16 10 17 10 34 35 38,38
3 15 14 32 21 10 11 13 16,17 11 11 14 15 17 21 12 21 16 28 11 11 19 14 21 10 39 28 36,39
3 15 14 33 21 10 11 13 16,17 11 11 14 15 17 21 12 21 16 28 11 11 19 14 22 10 39 28 36,39
2 11 13 32 24 10 12 13 16,18 12 11 14 15 14 21 12 21 17 22 12 11 19 13 23 10 41 32 37,38
2 14 12 28 25 11 11 13 14,20 11 11 14 15 18 24 11 19 15 25 12 13 19 11 24 11 42 28 38,38
2 14 13 29 23 11 13 13 11,16 11 12 15 17 16 23 11 19 17 22 12 12 17 10 21 11 38 28 35,37
2 14 13 29 24 10 13 13 11,15 13 12 15 16 17 23 12 19 16 22 13 12 17 10 23 10 37 29 35,36
2 14 13 29 24 10 13 13 12,14 11 12 15 15 17 23 12 19 17 22 12 12 20 10 21 10 39 27 36,37
2 14 13 29 24 11 13 13 11,14 12 12 15 16 18 23 12 19 18 22 13 12 17 10 22 10 39 29 34,38

Population studies

  • Alves C., Gusmão L., Barbosa J. and Amorim A. (2003), 'Evaluating the informative power of Y-STRs: a comparative study using European and new African haplotype data.', Forensic Sci Int 134(2-3):126-33 [PubMed]
  • Rocca D., Cannone F., D'Atanasio E., Bonito M., Anagnostou P., Russo G., Barni F., Alladio E., Destro-Bisol G., Trombetta B., Berti A. and Cruciani F. (2020), 'Ethnic fragmentation and degree of urbanization strongly affect the discrimination power of Y-STR haplotypes in central Sahel', For Sci Int Genet 49:102374 [DOI]
  • Leat N., Ehrenreich L., Benjeddou M., Cloete K. and Davison S. (2007), 'Properties of novel and widely studied Y-STR loci in three South African populations.', Forensic Sci Int 168(2-3):154-61 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Arroyo-Pardo E., Gusmão L., López-Parra AM., Baeza C., Mesa MS. and Amorim A. (2005), 'Genetic variability of 16 Y-chromosome STRs in a sample from Equatorial Guinea (Central Africa).', Forensic Sci Int 149(1):109-13 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Rosa A., Ornelas C., Brehm A. and Villems R. (2006), 'Population data on 11 Y-chromosome STRs from Guiné-Bissau.', Forensic Sci Int 157(2-3):210-7 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Carvalho M., Brito P., Bento AM., Gomes V., Antunes H., Costa A., Lopes V., Serra A., Balsa F., Andrade L., Anjos MJ., Corte-Real F. and Gusma˜o L. (2011), 'Paternal and maternal lineages in Guinea-Bissau population', For Sci Int Genet 5:114-6 [DOI]
  • Pereira L., Gusmão L., Alves C., Amorim A. and Prata MJ. (2002), 'Bantu and European Y-lineages in Sub-Saharan Africa.', Ann Hum Genet 66(Pt 5-6):369-78 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Fujihara J., Yuasa I., Muro T., Iida R., Tsubota E., Nakamura H., Imamura S., Yasuda T. and Takeshita H. (2009), 'Allele frequencies and haplotypes for 28 Y-STRs in Ovambo population.', Leg Med (Tokyo) 11(4):205-8 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Gomes V., Alves C., Amorim A., Carracedo A., Sánchez-Diz P. and Gusmão L. (2010), 'Nilotes from Karamoja, Uganda: haplotype data defined by 17 Y-chromosome STRs.', Forensic Sci Int Genet 4(4):e83-6 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Fortes-Lima C., Brucato N., Croze M., Bellis G., Schiavinato S., Massougbodji A., Migot-Nabias F. and Dugoujon J. (2015), 'Genetic population study of Y-chromosome markers in Benin and Ivory Coast ethnic groups', Forensic Science International: Genetics 19:232–237 [Link] [DOI]
  • Brucato N., Cassar O., Tonasso L., Tortevoye P., Migot-Nabias F., Plancoulaine S., Guitard E., Larrouy G., Gessain A. and Dugoujon JM. (2010), 'The imprint of the Slave Trade in an African American population: mitochondrial DNA, Y chromosome and HTLV-1 analysis in the Noir Marron of French Guiana.', BMC Evol Biol 10:314 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Melo MM., Carvalho M., Lopes V., Anjos MJ., Serra A., Vieira DN., Sequeiros J. and Corte-Real F. (2011), 'Y-STR haplotypes in three ethnic linguistic groups of Angola population.', Forensic Sci Int Genet 5(3):e83-8 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Purps J., Siegert S., Willuweit S., Nagy M., Alves C., Salazar R., Angustia SM., Santos LH., Anslinger K., Bayer B., Ayub Q., Wei W., Xue Y., Tyler-Smith C., Bafalluy MB., Martínez-Jarreta B., Egyed B., Balitzki B., Tschumi S., Ballard D., Court DS., Barrantes X., Bäßler G., Wiest T., Berger B., Niederstätter H., Parson W., Davis C., Budowle B., Burri H., Borer U., Koller C., Carvalho EF., Domingues PM., Chamoun WT., Coble MD., Hill CR., Corach D., Caputo M., D'Amato ME., Davison S., Decorte R., Larmuseau MH., Ottoni C., Rickards O., Lu D., Jiang C., Dobosz T., Jonkisz A., Frank WE., Furac I., Gehrig C., Castella V., Grskovic B., Haas C., Wobst J., Hadzic G., Drobnic K., Honda K., Hou Y., Zhou D., Li Y., Hu S., Chen S., Immel UD., Lessig R., Jakovski Z., Ilievska T., Klann AE., García CC., Knijff D., Kraaijenbrink T., Kondili A., Miniati P., Vouropoulou M., Kovacevic L., Marjanovic D., Lindner I., Mansour I., Al-Azem M., Andari AE., Marino M., Furfuro S., Locarno L., Martín P., Luque GM., Alonso A., Miranda LS., Moreira H., Mizuno N., Iwashima Y., Neto RS., Nogueira TL., Silva R., Nastainczyk-Wulf M., Edelmann J., Kohl M., Nie S., Wang X., Cheng B., Núñez C., Pancorbo MM., Olofsson JK., Morling N., Onofri V., Tagliabracci A., Pamjav H., Volgyi A., Barany G., Pawlowski R., Maciejewska A., Pelotti S., Pepinski W., Abreu-Glowacka M., Phillips C., Cárdenas J., Rey-Gonzalez D., Salas A., Brisighelli F., Capelli C., Toscanini U., Piccinini A., Piglionica M., Baldassarra SL., Ploski R., Konarzewska M., Jastrzebska E., Robino C., Sajantila A., Palo JU., Guevara E., Salvador J., Ungria MC., Rodriguez JJ., Schmidt U., Schlauderer N., Saukko P., Schneider PM., Sirker M., Shin KJ., Oh YN., Skitsa I., Ampati A., Smith TG., Calvit LS., Stenzl V., Capal T., Tillmar A., Nilsson H., Turrina S., Leo D., Verzeletti A., Cortellini V., Wetton JH., Gwynne GM., Jobling MA., Whittle MR., Sumita DR., Wolańska-Nowak P., Yong RY., Krawczak M., Nothnagel M. and Roewer L. (2014), 'A global analysis of Y-chromosomal haplotype diversity for 23 STR loci.', Forensic Sci Int Genet 12:12-23 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Xu H., Wang CC., Shrestha R., Wang LX., Zhang M., He Y., Kidd JR., Kidd KK., Jin L. and Li H. (2015), 'Inferring population structure and demographic history using Y‐STR data from worldwide populations', Mol Genet Genomics 290(1):141-50 [DOI]
  • Larmuseau MHD., Vessi A., Jobling MA., Geystelen A., Primativo G., Biondi G., Martínez-Labarga C., Ottoni C., Decorte R. and Rickards O. (2015), 'The Paternal Landscape along the Bight of Benin - Testing Regional Representativeness of West-African Population Samples Using Y-Chromosomal Markers', PLoS ONE 10(11):e0141510 [Link] [DOI]
  • Tau T., Davison S. and Eugenia M. (2015), 'Polymorphisms at 17 Y-STR loci in Botswana populations', Forensic Science International: Genetics 17:47-52 [Link] [DOI]
  • Rowold DJ., Perez-Benedico D., Stojkovic O., Alfonso-Sanchez MA., Garcia-Bertrand R. and Herrera RJ. (2016), 'On the Bantu expansion', Gene 593(1):48-57 [DOI]
  • Charles F., Mulima E. and Misinzo G. (2018), 'Analysis of Mutation Rate of 17 Y-Chromosome Short Tandem Repeats Loci Using Tanzanian Father-Son Paired Samples', Genetics Research International Article ID 8090469: [Link] [DOI]
  • Iacovacci G., D’Atanasio E., Marini O., Coppa A., Sellitto D., Trombetta B., Berti A. and Cruciani F. (2017), 'Forensic data and microvariant sequence characterization of 27 Y-STR loci analyzed in four Eastern African countries', Forensic Science International: Genetics 27:123-31 [DOI]
  • Barbieri C., Hübner A., Macholdt E., Ni S., Lippold S., Schröder R., Mpoloka SW., Purps J., Roewer L., Stoneking M. and Pakendorf B. (2016), 'Refining the Y chromosome phylogeny with southern African sequences', Hum Genet. 135(5):541-53 [DOI]
  • Martinez B., Catelli L., Romero M., Okolie VO., Keshinro SO., Carvalho EF., Vullo C. and Gusmão L. (2017), 'Forensic evaluation of 27 Y-STR haplotypes in a population sample from Nigeria', Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series 6:e289-e291 [DOI]
  • Kofi AE., Hakim HM., Khan HO., Ismail SA., Ghansah A., David AA., Mat NFC., Chambers GK. and Edinur HA. (2020), 'Population data of 23 Y chromosome STR loci for the five major human subpopulations of Ghana', Int J Legal Med 134:1313-1315 [DOI]
  • Reid KM. and Heathfield LJ. (2020), 'Allele frequency data for 23 Y-chromosome short tandem repeats (STRs) for the South African population', For Sci Int Genet 46:102270 [DOI]
  • Shonhai M., Nhiwatiwa T., Nangammbi T. and Mazando S. (2020), 'Genetic analysis of 27 Y-chromosomal STR loci in a Zimbabwean Shona ethnic group', Legal Medicine 43:101660 [Link] [DOI]
  • Bini C., Sarno S., Tangorra E., Iuvaro A., DeFanti S., Tseghereda YG., Pelotti S. and Luiselli D. (2021), 'Haplotype data and forensic evaluation of 23 Y-STR and 12 X-STR loci in eight ethnic groups from Eritrea', Int J Legal Med 135(2):449-453 [DOI]
  • Zeye MMJ., Li J., Ouedraogo SY., Zha L., Simpore J. and Jifeng C. (2021), 'Population data and genetic structure analysis based on 29 Y-STR loci among the ethnolinguistic groups in Burkina Faso', Int J Legal Med 135:1767–9 [DOI]
  • Yunis JJ., Acevedo LE., Campo DS. and Yunis EJ. (2005), 'Population data of Y-STR minimal haplotypes in a sample of Caucasian-Mestizo and African descent individuals of Colombia.', Forensic Sci Int 151(2-3):307-13 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • González-Andrade F., Roewer L., Willuweit S., Sánchez D. and Martínez-Jarreta B. (2009), 'Y-STR variation among ethnic groups from Ecuador: Mestizos, Kichwas, Afro-Ecuadorians and Waoranis.', Forensic Sci Int Genet 3(3):e83-91 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Kayser M., Brauer S., Schädlich H., Prinz M., Batzer MA., Zimmerman PA., Boatin BA. and Stoneking M. (2003), 'Y chromosome STR haplotypes and the genetic structure of U.S. populations of African, European, and Hispanic ancestry.', Genome Res 13(4):624-34 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Frank WE., Ellinger ER. and Krishack PA. (2006), 'Y chromosome STR haplotypes and allele frequencies in Illinois Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic males.', J Forensic Sci 51(5):1207-15 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Aliferi A., Thomson J., McDonald A., Molin V., Ferguson S., Vanhinsbergh D., Syndercombe D. and Ballard D. (2018), 'UK and Irish Y-STR population data—A catalogue of variant alleles', For Sci Int Genetics 34:e1-6 [Link] [DOI]
  • Steffen CR., Huszar TI., Borsuk LA., Vallone PM. and Gettings KB. (2022), 'A multi-dimensional evaluation of the ‘NIST 1032’ sample set across four forensic Y-STR multiplexes', For Sci Int Genet Epub ahead of print:In press [DOI]
  • Domingues PM., Gusmão L., Silva D., Amorim A., Pereira RW. and Carvalho D. (2007), 'Sub-Saharan Africa descendents in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil): population and mutational data for 12 Y-STR loci.', Int J Legal Med 121(3):238-41 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Góis CC., Martins JA., Pereira GA., Freschi A., Paneto GG., Alvarenga VL., Cicarelli RM., Hirata MH. and Oliveira RN. (2008), 'Genetic population data of 12 STR loci of the PowerPlex Y system in the state of São Paulo population (Southeast of Brazil).', Forensic Sci Int 174(1):81-6 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Budowle B., Ge J., Aranda XG., Planz JV., Eisenberg AJ. and Chakraborty R. (2009), 'Texas population substructure and its impact on estimating the rarity of Y STR haplotypes from DNA evidence*.', J Forensic Sci 54(5):1016-21 [PubMed] [DOI]
  • Pignone ML., Manzella AM., Galusha M., Le J. and Moreno LI. (2022), 'Y-STR Sample Haplotypes From Five United States of America Population Groups', Forensic Science International: Reports 100274:In press [DOI]
  • Simms TM., Wright MR., Martinez E., Regueiro M., McCartney Q. and Herrera RJ. (2013), 'Y-STR diversity and sex-biased gene flow among Caribbean populations', Gene 516(1):82-92 [DOI]

Personal communications

YA005978, YA005140, YA005540, YA005381, YA005128, YA005551, YA005454, YA005789, YA005967, YA005420, YA005813, YA005129, YA005191, YA002959, YA005618, YA004765, YA005009, YA005705, YA005434, YA005476, YA005614, YA005247, YA005942, YA005167, YA005818, YA005408, YA005570, YA005774, YA005795, YA005266, YA005207, YA005260, YA005840, YA005883, YA005154, YA005535, YA005615
* See FAQ/Glossary (http://yhrd.org/pages/faq) for further explanations of abbreviated terms used here